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Mother to Son by Langston Hughes – Narration by Viola Davis

Suggested Reflection Activity: After reading the below Langston Hughes poems, choose one that spoke most vividly to you.

Which poem painted the best image of the dreams that black people had for freedom and equality and why? No two people read any poem in exactly the same way, so there is no right or wrong answer to the question.

Dreams – by Langston Hughes

Hold fast to dreams
For if dreams die
Life is a broken-winged bird
That cannot fly.
Hold fast to dreams
For when dreams go
Life is a barren field
Frozen with snow.


I, Too – by Langston Hughes

I, too, sing America.

I am the darker brother.
They send me to eat in the kitchen
When company comes,
But I laugh,
And eat well,
And grow strong.

I’ll be at the table
When company comes.
Nobody’ll dare
Say to me,
“Eat in the kitchen,”

They’ll see how beautiful I am
And be ashamed–

I, too, am America

Harlem [dream Deferred] – by Langston Hughes

What happens to a dream deferred?

Does it dry up
like a raisin in the sun?
Or fester like a sore—
And then run?
Does it stink like rotten meat?
Or crust and sugar over—
like a syrupy sweet?

Maybe it just sags
like a heavy load.

Or does it explode?

Merry-Go-Round – by Langston Hughes

Where is the Jim Crow section
On this merry-go-round,
Mister, cause I want to ride?
Down South where I come from
White and colored
Can’t sit side by side.
Down South on the train
There’s a Jim Crow car.
On the bus we’re put in the back—
But there ain’t no back
To a merry-go-round!
Where’s the horse
For a kid that’s black?

Acceptance – Poem by Langston Hughes

God in His infinite wisdom
Did not make me very wise–
So when my actions are stupid
They hardly take God by surprise

Mother to Son

Well, son, I’ll tell you:
Life for me ain’t been no crystal stair.
It’s had tacks in it,
And splinters,
And boards torn up,
And places with no carpet on the floor—
But all the time
I’se been a-climbin’ on,
And reachin’ landin’s,
And turnin’ corners,
And sometimes goin’ in the dark
Where there ain’t been no light.
So, boy, don’t you turn back.
Don’t you set down on the steps.
‘Cause you finds it’s kinder hard.
Don’t you fall now—
For I’se still goin’, honey,
I’se still climbin’,
And life for me ain’t been no crystal stair.

Let America Be America Again – by Langston Hughes

Let America be America again.
Let it be the dream it used to be.
Let it be the pioneer on the plain
Seeking a home where he himself is free.

(America never was America to me.)

Let America be the dream the dreamers dreamed–
Let it be that great strong land of love
Where never kings connive nor tyrants scheme
That any man be crushed by one above.

(It never was America to me.)

O, let my land be a land where Liberty
Is crowned with no false patriotic wreath,
But opportunity is real, and life is free,
Equality is in the air we breathe.

(There’s never been equality for me,
Nor freedom in this “homeland of the free.”)

Say, who are you that mumbles in the dark?
And who are you that draws your veil across the stars?

I am the poor white, fooled and pushed apart,
I am the Negro bearing slavery’s scars.
I am the red man driven from the land,
I am the immigrant clutching the hope I seek–
And finding only the same old stupid plan
Of dog eat dog, of mighty crush the weak.

I am the young man, full of strength and hope,
Tangled in that ancient endless chain
Of profit, power, gain, of grab the land!
Of grab the gold! Of grab the ways of satisfying need!
Of work the men! Of take the pay!
Of owning everything for one’s own greed!

I am the farmer, bondsman to the soil.
I am the worker sold to the machine.
I am the Negro, servant to you all.
I am the people, humble, hungry, mean–
Hungry yet today despite the dream.
Beaten yet today–O, Pioneers!
I am the man who never got ahead,
The poorest worker bartered through the years.

Yet I’m the one who dreamt our basic dream
In the Old World while still a serf of kings,
Who dreamt a dream so strong, so brave, so true,
That even yet its mighty daring sings
In every brick and stone, in every furrow turned
That’s made America the land it has become.
O, I’m the man who sailed those early seas
In search of what I meant to be my home–
For I’m the one who left dark Ireland’s shore,
And Poland’s plain, and England’s grassy lea,
And torn from Black Africa’s strand I came
To build a “homeland of the free.”

The free?

Who said the free? Not me?
Surely not me? The millions on relief today?
The millions shot down when we strike?
The millions who have nothing for our pay?
For all the dreams we’ve dreamed
And all the songs we’ve sung
And all the hopes we’ve held
And all the flags we’ve hung,
The millions who have nothing for our pay–
Except the dream that’s almost dead today.

O, let America be America again–
The land that never has been yet–
And yet must be–the land where every man is free.
The land that’s mine–the poor man’s, Indian’s, Negro’s, ME–
Who made America,
Whose sweat and blood, whose faith and pain,
Whose hand at the foundry, whose plow in the rain,
Must bring back our mighty dream again.

Sure, call me any ugly name you choose–
The steel of freedom does not stain.
From those who live like leeches on the people’s lives,
We must take back our land again,

O, yes,
I say it plain,
America never was America to me,
And yet I swear this oath–
America will be!

Out of the rack and ruin of our gangster death,
The rape and rot of graft, and stealth, and lies,
We, the people, must redeem
The land, the mines, the plants, the rivers.
The mountains and the endless plain–
All, all the stretch of these great green states–
And make America again!

Quilts by Nikkie Giovanni (for Sally Sellers)

Like a fading piece of cloth

I am a failure


No longer do I cover tables filled with food and laughter

My seams are frayed my hems falling my strength no longer able

To hold the hot and cold


I wish for those first days

When just woven I could keep water

From seeping through

Repelled stains with the tightness of my weave

Dazzled the sunlight with my



I grow old though pleased with my memories

The tasks I can no longer complete

Are balanced by the love of the tasks gone past


I offer no apology only

this plea:


When I am frayed and strained and drizzle at the end

Please someone cut a square and put me in a quilt

That I might keep some child warm


And some old person with no one else to talk to

Will hear my whispers


And cuddle


The Mocking Bird by Timothy Thomas Fortune

Have you e’er heard, at early morn,

The feathered poet sing his song,

Clear as a huntsman’s clarion horn,

Yet softer, sweeter, and as strong?

Have you e’er felt his magic power

Soothe, as a balm, your troubled breast,

Change into mirth the gloomy hour,

Cradle th’ enchanted sense to rest?

Have you e’er heard in native bowers

The mocking bird’s angelic lay,

In Summer’s home, the “Land of Flowers,”

Where cooling streams refresh the way?

I’ve roamed the woods from morn till night

In that delicious Summer clime—

For there my eyes first saw the light,

There kissed I first the cheek of Time!

I’ve heard the feathered poet sing—

Electrify the peace around—

Make the wild echoes gladsome ring—

With melody’s divinest sound.

The wild flowers all about in bloom—

The nodding pine—the winding stream—

The orange blossoms’ sweet perfume—

Ah! was it not a blissful dream?

Excerpt from Freedom by Charles Lewis Reason

O Freedom! Freedom! O! how oft
Thy loving children call on Thee!
In wailings loud, and breathings soft,
Beseeching God, Thy face to see.

With agonizing hearts we kneel,
While ’round us howls the oppressor’s cry,—
And suppliant pray, that we may feel
The ennob’ling glances of Thine eye.

We think of Thee as once we saw
Thee, jewel’d by Thy Father’s hand,
Afar beside dark Egypt’s shore,
Exulting with Thy ransom’d band.

We hear, as then, the thrilling song,
That hail’d Thy passage through the sea,—
While distant echoes still prolong
The cymbal’d anthem, sung to Thee.

And wafted yet, upon the gales
Borne pure and fresh from sunny skies,
Come startling words! that ‘long the vales
Where Pelion and Ossa rise,

Were shouted by Thine own clear voice!
And Grecian hearts leap’d at the call:
E’en as now Patriot souls rejoice,
To see invading tyrants fall.

We view Thy stately form, loom o’er
The topmost of the seven hills!
Around Thee glittering eagles soar—
The symbol’d rise of freeborn wills.

Down in the plains, we still behold
The circled forums built to Thee;—
Hear Tully’s strains, and Brutus bold,
Call on his country to be free.

The Slave Auction by Frances Ellen Watkins Harper

The sale began—young girls were there,   

   Defenseless in their wretchedness,

Whose stifled sobs of deep despair   

   Revealed their anguish and distress.


And mothers stood, with streaming eyes,

   And saw their dearest children sold;

Unheeded rose their bitter cries,

   While tyrants bartered them for gold.


And woman, with her love and truth—

   For these in sable forms may dwell—

Gazed on the husband of her youth,

   With anguish none may paint or tell.


And men, whose sole crime was their hue,

   The impress of their Maker’s hand,

And frail and shrinking children too,

   Were gathered in that mournful band.


Ye who have laid your loved to rest,

   And wept above their lifeless clay,

Know not the anguish of that breast,

   Whose loved are rudely torn away.


Ye may not know how desolate

   Are bosoms rudely forced to part,

And how a dull and heavy weight

   Will press the life-drops from the heart.

On Virtue by Phillis Wheatley

O Thou bright jewel in my aim I strive
To comprehend thee. Thine own words declare
Wisdom is higher than a fool can reach.
I cease to wonder, and no more attempt
Thine height t’ explore, or fathom thy profound.
But, O my soul, sink not into despair,
Virtue is near thee, and with gentle hand
Would now embrace thee, hovers o’er thine head.
Fain would the heav’n-born soul with her converse,
Then seek, then court her for her promis’d bliss.
Auspicious queen, thine heav’nly pinions spread,
And lead celestial Chastity along;
Lo! now her sacred retinue descends,
Array’d in glory from the orbs above.
Attend me, Virtue, thro’ my youthful years!
O leave me not to the false joys of time!
But guide my steps to endless life and bliss.
Greatness, or Goodness, say what I shall call thee,
To give me an higher appellation still,
Teach me a better strain, a nobler lay,
O thou, enthron’d with Cherubs in the realms of day.





Suggested Reading

“Barracoon” by zora neale hurston

“Behold the dreamers” by Imbolo mbue

“between the World and me” By Ta-Nehisi coates

“Charles drew: pioneer of blood plasma” by linda trice

“Coffee will make you black” by april sinclair

“crusade for justice: the autobiography of ida b. wells” by ida b. wells

“daniel hale williams: negro surgeon” by helen buckler

“find where the wind blows” by mae jemison

“glory” by kahran and regis bethencourt

“Granville Taylor Woods:  The First Black American Who Was Granted Forty-Nine Patents” byJonathan Walker Sr.

“hidden figures” by margot lee shetterly

“invisible man” by ralph ellison

“Narrative of the life of henry box brown” by henry box brown

“on her own ground: the life and times of madam C.J. walker” by a’Lelia bundles

“Pulse of Perseverance:
Three Black Doctors on Their Journey to Success” by Joseph Semien Jr MD, Pierre Johnson MD, & Maxime Madhere MD

“secrets we kept: three women of trinidad” by krystal a. sital

“So you want to talk about race” by ijeoma oluo

“sundown towns: a hidden dimension of american racism” by james w. loewen

“the color of water” by james mcBride

“the good fight” by shirley Chisholm

“the life of bessie coleman: first african-american woman pilot” by connie plantz

“the master plan: my journey from life in prison to a life of purpose” by chris wilson

“the master’s tools will never dismantle the master’s house” Audre lorde

“the other slavery: the uncovered story of indian enslavement in America” by andrés reséndez

“the souls of black folk” by w.E.B. du bois

“walking with the wind: a memoir of the movement” by john lewis

“the ways of white folks” by langston hughes